F2pool cloud mining
Bitcoin mining pools are a way for Bitcoin miners to pool their resources together and share their hashing power while splitting the prize identically according to the amount of shares they contributed to solving a block.
A “share” is awarded to members of the Bitcoin mining pool who present a valid proof of work that their Bitcoin miner solved. Bitcoin mining te pools began when the difficulty for mining enhanced to the point where it could take years for slower miners to generate a block.
The solution to this problem wasgoed for miners to pool their resources so they could generate blocks quicker and therefore receive a portion of the Bitcoin block prize on a consistent ondergrond, rather than randomly once every few years.
If you solo-mine, meaning you do not mine with a Bitcoin mining pool, then you will need to ensure that you are ter overeenstemming with the Bitcoin network. The best way is to use the official BitCore client.
If you participate ter a Bitcoin mining pool then you will want to ensure that they are engaging ter behavior that is te agreement with your philosophy towards Bitcoin.
For example, some rogue developers have threatened to release software that could hard-fork the network which would likely result te tremendous financial harm.
Therefore, it is your duty to make sure that any Bitcoin mining power you meteen to a mining pool does not attempt to enforce network overeenstemming rules you disagree with.
When segwit is activated, you will want to be able to mine and relay segwit-style blocks. The following mining software has bot upgraded to support segwit.
Please note that software that supports the GetBlockTemplate (GBT) RPC vereiste be upgraded to support the BIP9 and BIP145 switches to GBT. All the programs linked above that support GBT have bot upgraded.
Segwit is already activated and enforced on testnet, so you may find it useful to test your infrastructure upgrade by mining with some puny amount of hashrate on testnet. Alternatively, Bitcoin Core 0.13.1’s regression test mode (regtest) also supports segwit by default.
Bitcoin Mining Pools
There are many good Bitcoin mining pools to choose from. Albeit it’s tempting to pick the most popular one, it’s better for the health of the network to mine with smaller pools so spil to avoid potentially harmful concentration of hashing power.
The hash rate distribution is best when split among more Bitcoin mining pools.
Bitcoin Mining Pool Hash Rate Distribution
Bitcoin Mining Pool Options
For a fully decentralized pool, wij very recommend p2pool.
The following pools are believed to be presently fully validating blocks with Bitcoin Core 0.11 or zometeen:
BTCC: BTCC is a Bitcoin exchange, wallet, and mining pool located te China. Its mining pool presently controls around 15% of the network hash rate.
Slush Pool: Slush Pool is run by Satoshi Labs, a Bitcoin company based te the Czech Republic. Slush Pool wasgoed the very first mining pool and maintains around 7% of the network hash rate.
Antpool: [WARNING] – Bitmain operates Antpool and some consider them to be a malicious actor te the Bitcoin ecosystem because of the AntBleed scandal where they were intentionally including malware within mining equipment they sell. Te a corporate communication, Bitmain claimed this wasgoed a feature and not a bug. This malware would enable Bitmain to remotely shut down equipment of customers or competitors thus enhancing their own profitability. Additionally, such behavior could pose a risk to the entire Bitcoin network.
Eligius: Eligius wasgoed one of the very first Bitcoin mining pools and wasgoed founded by Luke Dashjr, a Bitcoin Core developer. Today, the pool controls just under 1% of the network hash rate.
BitMinter: BitMinter, once one of the largest Bitcoin mining pools, now controls less than 1% of the network hash rate.
Kano CKPool: Kano CKPool wasgoed founded ter 2014 and presently has around 3% of the network hash rate under its control.
F2Pool: F2Pool is the 2nd largest Bitcoin mining pool, with around 25% of the network hash rate. Its user interface is te Chinese, making it difficult for English speakers to join.
BW Pool: BW Pool controls around 7% of the network hash rate. Like F2Pool, its user interface is te Chinese, making it difficult for English speakers to join.
Bitfury: Albeit seen publically te block explorers and hash rate charts, BitFury is a private mining pool and cannot be joined.
Bitcoin Mining Pool Payment Methods
Calculating your share of the bitcoins mined can be ingewikkeld. Ter an ongoing effort to come up with the fairest method and prevent gaming of the system, many calculation schemes have bot invented. The two most popular types are PPS and DGM. PPS, or ‘pay vanaf share’ shifts the risk to the mining pool while they ensure payment for every share you contribute.
PPS payment schemes require a very large reserve of Ten,000 BTC te order to ensure they have the means of bearing a streak of bad luck. For this reason, most Bitcoin mining pools no longer support it.
One of the few remaining PPS pools is EclipseMC. DGM is a popular payment scheme because it offers a nice balance inbetween brief round and long round blocks. However, end users voorwaarde wait for utter round confirmations long after the blocks are processed.
PPS: The Pay-per-Share (PPS) treatment offers an instant, assured payout for each share that is solved by a miner. Miners are paid out from the pools existing balance and can withdraw their payout instantly. This monster permits for the least possible variance ter payment for miners while also transferring much of the risk to the pool’s technicus.
PROP: The Proportional treatment offers a proportional distribution of the prize when a block is found amongst all workers, based off of the number of shares they have each found.
PPLNS: The Pay Vanaf Last N Shares (PPLN) treatment is similar to the proportional method, but instead of counting the number of shares ter the round, it instead looks at the last N shares, no matter the boundaries of the round.
DGM: The Dual Geometric Method (DGM) is a hybrid treatment that enables the technicus to absorb some of the risk. The technicus receives a portion of payouts during brief rounds and comes back it during longer rounds to normalize payments.
SMPPS: The Collective Maximum Pay Vanaf Share (SMPPS) uses a similar treatment to PPS but never pays more than the Bitcoin mining pool has earned.
ESMPPS: The Equalized Collective Maximum Pay Vanaf Share (ESMPPS) is similar to SMPPS, but distributes payments identically among all miners ter the Bitcoin mining pool.
RSMPPS: The Latest Collective Maximum Pay Vanaf Share (RSMPPS) is also similar to SMPPS, but the system prioritizes the most latest Bitcoin miners very first.
CPPSRB: The Capped Pay Vanaf Share with Latest Backpay uses a Maximum Pay Vanaf Share (MPPS) prize system that will pay Bitcoin miners spil much spil possible using the income from finding blocks, but will never go bankrupt.
BPM: Bitcoin Pooled mining (BPM), also known spil “Slush’s pool”, uses a system where older shares from the beginning of a block round are given less weight than more latest shares. This reduces the capability to cheat the mining pool system by switching pools during a round.
POT: The Pay on Target (POT) treatment is a high variance PPS that pays out te accordance with the difficulty of work returned to the pool by a miner, rather than the difficulty of work done by the pool itself.
SCORE: The SCORE based treatment uses a system whereby a proportional prize is distributed and weighed by the time the work wasgoed submitted. This process makes zometeen shares worth more than earlier shares and scored by time, thus prizes are calculated te proportion to the scores and not shares submitted.
ELIGIUS: Eligius wasgoed designed by Luke Jr., creator of BFGMiner, to incorporate the strengths of PPS and BPM pools, spil miners submit proofs-of-work to earn shares and the pool pays out instantly. When the block prizes are distributed, they are divided identically among all shares since the last valid block and the shares contributed to stale blocks are cycled into the next block’s shares. Prizes are only paid out if a miner earns at least. 67108864 and if the amount owed is less than that it will be flipped overheen to the next block until the limit is achieved. However, if a Bitcoin miner does not submit a share for overheen a period of a week, then the pool will send any remaining balance, regardless of its size.
Triplemining: Triplemining brings together medium-sized pools with no fees and redistributes 1% of every block found, which permits your share to grow swifter than any other Bitcoin mining pool treatment. The administrators of thesis Bitcoin mining pools use some of the Bitcoins generated when a block is found to add to a jackpot that is triggered and paid out to the member of the pool who found the block. Te this way, everyone ter the pool has a better chance to make extra Bitcoins, regardless of their processing power.
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P2Pool is a decentralized Bitcoin mining pool that works by creating a peer-to-peer network of miner knots.
P2Pool creates a fresh block chain te which the difficulty is adjusted so a fresh block is found every 30 seconds. The blocks that get into the P2Pool block chain (called the “share chain”) are the same blocks that would get into the Bitcoin block chain, only they have a lower difficulty target. Whenever a peer announces a fresh share found (fresh block te the P2Pool block chain), it is received by the other peers, and the other peers verify that this block contains payouts for all the previous miners who found a share (and announced it) that made it into the P2Pool share chain. This proceeds until some peer finds a block that has a difficulty that meets the Bitcoin network’s difficulty target. This peer announces this block to the Bitcoin network and miners who have submitted shares for this block are paid ter the generation transaction, proportionally to how many shares they have found ter the last while. – Unknown author
Decentralized payout pooling solves the problem of centralized mining pools degrading the decentralization of Bitcoin and avoids the risk of hard to detect theft by pool operators.
Miners are configured to connect to a P2Pool knot that can be run locally, alongside the miner. P2Pool users voorwaarde run a utter Bitcoin knot which serves the purpose of independently validating transactions and the Bitcoin blockchain. P2Pool also supports merged mining and several alternative blockchains.
P2Pool knots work on a chain of shares similar to Bitcoin’s blockchain. Each knot works on a block that includes payouts to the previous shares’ owners and the knot itself, which can also result te a share if it meets P2Pool’s difficulty.
Because of the importance of strengthening Bitcoin’s decentralization, some Bitcoin volgers donate to P2Pool miners, resulting ter average comebacks above 100% of the expected prize. However, it should be noted that there are other pools (such spil BitPenny and Eligius) which can provide this same level of decentralization.
P2Pool shares form a “sharechain” with each share referencing the previous share’s hash. Each share contains a standard Bitcoin block header, some P2Pool-specific gegevens that is used to compute the generation transaction (total subsidy, payout script of this share, a nonce, the previous share’s hash, and the current target for shares), and a Merkle branch linking that generation transaction to the block header’s Merkle hash.
The chain continuously regulates its target to keep generation around one share every thirty seconds, just spil Bitcoin regulates it to generate one block every ten minutes. This means that finding shares becomes more difficult (resulting te higher variance) the more people mine on P2Pool, tho’ large miners have the option to raise their difficulty, and so reduce the influence of their mining on P2Pool’s ondergrens difficulty.
Unlike Bitcoin, knots do not know the entire chain – instead they only hold the last 8640 shares (the last Trio day’s worth). Te order to prevent an attacker from working on a chain ter secret and then releasing it, overriding the existing chain, chains are judged by how much work they have since a point te the past. To ascertain that the work has bot done since that point, knots look at the Bitcoin blocks that the shares reference, establishing a provable timestamp. (If a share points to a block, it wasgoed undoubtedly made after that block wasgoed made.)
Each share contains a generation transaction that pays to the previous n shares, where n is the number of shares whose total work is equal to Three times the average work required to solve a block, or 8640 (= 24 hours of shares), whichever is smaller. Payouts are weighted based on the amount of work each share took to solve, which is proportional to the p2pool difficulty at that time.
The block prize (presently 12.5BTC) and the transaction fees are combined and apportioned according to thesis rules:
A subsidy of 0.5% is sent to the knot that solved the block te order to discourage not sharing solutions that qualify spil a block. (A miner with the aim to harm others could withhold the block, thereby preventing anybody from getting paid. He can NOT redirect the payout to himself.) The remaining 99.5% is distributed evenly to miners based on work done recently.
Te the event that a share qualifies spil a block, this generation transaction is exposed to the Bitcoin network and takes effect, transferring each knot its payout.
On P2Pool stales refer to shares which can’t make it into the sharechain. Because the sharechain is 20 times swifter than the Bitcoin chain many stales are common and expected. However, because the payout is PPLNS only your stale rate relative to other knots is relevant, the absolute rate is not.
There are two reported kinds of stales te P2Pool: “DEAD ON ARRIVAL” shares and orphan shares. Dead shares were too old by the time they arrived at your local P2Pool. Very high dead rates can indicate miner misconfiguration. Orphan shares are shares which were not extended by the surplus of the P2Pool network, because some other miner’s share wasgoed accepted very first. Very high orphan rates may indicate network connectivity problems.
The P2Pool console output shows your relative stale rate compared to other P2Pool miners ter the ‘Own efficiency’ katern:
When you very first begin P2Pool claimed efficiency will be low and the error bounds on this estimate will be large, but spil it runs the numbers will converge to their juist values.
If your efficiency is unusually low, make sure your network connection isn’t overcharged, that your miners support long polling and are not set to work for excessive amounts of time, and that your bitcoind has numerous connections.
Joining the pool
Go after thesis steps to join the pool:
- Run Bitcoin with the RPC interface enabled: edit bitcoin.conf to include:
- Substitute LONG_RANDOM_SECRET_VALUE with something long and random like the output of smashing your keyboard for a bit like fju4M78yAj3ds39pak92raK. You don’t need to be able to reminisce it. If your RPC port becomes exposed to the internet a thief could steal your bitcoin if they could guess it, or use a brute force attack ter order to find it.
- Bitcoin 0.8.Five or straks is required
- It’s significant that your Bitcoin client be fully synchronized before embarking. It’s also better if you have the Bitcoin port forwarded
Dependencies if running from source:
- Python Two.6 or higher (but not Trio.x)
- Twisted (Ubuntu package python-twisted)
Frequently Asked Questions
Q: “Why does my miner report so many longpoll events when mining on p2pool? – P4Man”
30 seconds is normal. That is how often p2pool shares are generated (spil opposed to
Ten minus for bitcoin blocks) – cabin”
Q: “Do the ‘orphan’ and ‘dead’ shares te P2Pool’s status display hurt mij?”
A: They shouldn’t – It’s normal for some fraction of everyone’s shares to end up orphaned or dead. Because payouts are calculated by counting how many shares you have relative to others, everyone with normal configurations is identically “hurt” by this. However, if you have a large proportion of stales, your payout will be hurt. You can see how well you’re doing by looking at P2Pool’s “Efficiency” (ex: Efficiency:
110.6% (40-111%)). If 100% doesn’t lie within the confidence interval at the end, something is very likely wrong (with 95% confidence).
Q: “What do I do if my efficiency is low?”
A: Make sure the computers you’re running P2Pool and the miner on have enough memory and CPU time. If you have a lotsbestemming of dead shares or the “Local dead on arrival” number is higher than a few procent, that means that something is wrong with your miner. Check to make sure that it is one of the working versions ter the Miners section on this pagina. Lower the force or raise the FPS of your miner. If you have a loterijlot of orphan shares, something is wrong with P2Pool’s P2P connection. Decrease the blast on your internet connection or enable QoS (Quality of Service) on your router.
A: Pay-Per-Last-N-Shares is a payout method that is totally resistant to pool hoppers.
Q: Why am I not getting very many shares?!
A: The P2Pool difficulty is hundreds of times higher than on other pools. It can take time to get a share. P2Pool displays an estimate of how long you have to wait te the console output.
Q: Why does my miner say it has found a lotsbestemming of shares but p2pool say I have only found a few?!
A: The real P2Pool difficulty is hundreds of times higher than on normal pools, but p2pool essentially lies to your miner and tells it to work on relatively effortless shares so that it submits shares every few seconds instead of every few hours. P2Pool then disregards any submitted shares that don’t match the real share difficulty. By doing this, P2Pool can more accurately report your local hash rate and you can see if you are having problems with too many stale shares quickly
Q: Why am I getting so many rejects?
A: You’re using an incompatible miner. See the miners section here, increase your FPS on the miner, decrease the energy, upgrade your miner, or attempt a different miner.
Q: What stops the pool technicus or the block finder from stealing a block?
A: A block solution is only worth anything because its hash matches Bitcoin’s target. Altering anything within the block will switch its hash and make it worthless. If you are worried about the pool technicus stealing a block, you should attempt to inspect the source code of each fresh version.
Q: Why does it say “Generated?” I want to spend my coins now!
A: P2Pool includes payouts te generation transactions, which vereiste mature (taking 120 blocks or 20 hours) before they can be spent. The reason for this is that a block could be orphaned, which would make its payout invalid and could switch roles transactions.
Q: Do I get paid transaction fees?
A: Yes. They are split among P2Pool miners.
Q: What are thesis payments I’m getting that aren’t generated?
A: Thesis are subsidies that people who support the idea of P2Pool send to miners.
Q: Cool Subsidies sound like an awesome idea! How do I send some BTC to thesis awesome miners?
A: See end of this pagina.
Q: Do I indeed need the Entire blockchain?
A: Yes. Your knot needs to be able to independently make decisions about what transactions to mine.
Q: How do merged mining payments work?
A: Merged mining is treated entirely by namecoind, so you’re solo mining and payouts will go into namecoind’s wallet.
This is all for the latest p2pool version, spil it includes several fresh workarounds.
With all miners, using a HIGH FPS target (100?) or a LOW energy (8 for bfgminer?) helps a lotsbestemming with reducing stales.
- bfgminer, cgminer, and ufasoft work ideally without any reserve options.
- DiabloMiner works fine after commit 3b731b9.
- Phoenix works fine after commit a658ef2.
- Poclbm works fine after commit 5e994e7.
P2Pool uses higher difficulty shares than most centralized pools, so you’ll see fewer shares reported. This is normal and doesn’t reduce your payments. It’s also normal to see longpoll messages once vanaf every ten seconds on average.
Tips to configure bfgminer to reduce stale/doa:
- “gpu-threads” ,: “1”, (Two by default)
- “queue” ,: “0”, (1 by default)
Because of swift longpooling te p2pool it is better not NOT fetch work ahead.
On non-dedicated machines strength=Three permits normal usage of PC, set it to 7 or more to get total hashrate.
On most cards best is diablo and phatk kernel, looks like poclbm kernel have unstable rate.
- If upgrading P2Pool or switching its configuration, you can commence another example of P2Pool ter parallel with the very first. It will begin normally, but realize that the worker and P2P listening ports are busy and keep attempting to tie to them ter the background. Thus, you can do almost-completely-seamless upgrades of P2Pool.
- If you run numerous P2Pool knots or have trusted friends that run P2Pool, you can use -n to establish a onveranderlijk toegevoegd P2P connection to them.
- You can make P2Pool use a configuration verkeersopstopping by running run_p2pool.py FILENAME, with FILENAME being the path to a verkeersopstopping containing the command-line arguments (newlines are disregarded) Example:
- Setting the username of your miner connecting to P2Pool to a Bitcoin address will make it mine to that address instead of the one requested from bitcoind or set by -a
- Appending “/1000” to a miner’s username will increase the difficulty of producing a P2Pool share to at most 1000. This is useful to large miners because doing this can make it lighter for puny miners while minimally impacting the large miners themselves. See recommended values.
- Appending “+1” (for example) after that will make P2Pool always give your miners work with a difficulty of 1
Lots of gegevens and useful implements are available at http://127.0.0.1:9332/something:
- /static/ – Lots of information from shares to graphs to payouts.
- /patron_sendmany – Gives sendmany outputs for fair donations to P2Pool
- /web/loom – Some different stats collected overheen the last day
P2pool works fine with most hardware. This lists some of the hardware confirmed to work and any special configuration required.
- ASICminer blade 10GH/s (Requires adding +1 to username or proxy)
- Avalon 110nm 60-110 GH/s (All batches)
- Avalon based 55nm 200 GH/s (specific makers?)
- Avalon prototype 55nm 120GH/s (
(Various GPU and most FPGAs other than BFL single FPGAs work fine too)
This is a list of hardware with known issues that should not be used on p2pool.
- Cointerra Terraminer IV (10-20% hash rate loss when mining on p2pool)
- Btimain Antminer S2 (10-20% hash rate loss when mining on p2pool, the S1 &, S3 both work well on p2pool)
P2Pool’s protocol mirrors Bitcoin’s P2P protocol te many ways. It uses the same framing (prefix, instruction, length, checksum, payload) and similar directives:
- version – sent to establish a connection – contains (version, services, addr_to, addr_from, nonce, sub_version, mode, best_share_hash)
- setmode – sent to update the mode sent ter the version message – contains (mode)
- ping – sent to keep connection alive – contains ()
- addrme – request that the receiving knot send out an addr for the sending knot – contains (port)
- addrs – broadcast list of knots’ addresses – contains (addrs)
- getaddrs – request that the receiving knot send count addrs – contains (count)
- getshares – request that the receiving knot send the shares referenced by hashes and parents of their parents, stopping at any share referenced by stops – contains (hashes, parents, stops)
- shares – broadcast message of the contents of shares – contains (shares)
This project wasgoed announced on June 17, 2011 by Forrest Voight  .
The pool began testing against mainnet ter mid-July, 2011. The pool wasgoed reviewed on a Bitcoin Miner postbode on July 26, 2011 [Two] .
The software author’s address for donations can be found ter the signature section of his forum profile.
Donating to P2Pool miners
Te order to encourage people to mine to P2Pool you can donate to the latest miners te proportion using a sendmany:
For example, a bash script to donate Ten btc is:
You can substitute “” with “accountname” if you want to pay from some specific bitcoind account, and you need to substitute 127.0.0.1 with the address of your P2Pool knot if you’re not running one locally.
Note that the amount you donate will be allocated to latest miners te proportion to the amount of work they’ve done te the last 24 hours or so, but all the miner whose shares of the donated amount are less than 0.01 BTC will have their shares combined into a single amount which is awarded to one of them at random, with the chance of winning this ‘lottery’ weighted by the miner’s latest amount of work done. You can switch this 0.01 BTC threshold like this, for example, which says to pay Ten BTC, but to share it amongst more miners that the default, cutting off at 0.001 BTC instead of at 0.01 BTC.
If you determine to donate you should announce it on the forums so that your donations provide the most incentive possible.
- The Bitcoin Foundation for its generous support of P2Pool
- The Litecoin Project for its generous donations to P2Pool